An economic model looks to sustain natural and fi nancial capital; an ecological model looks to bio-logical diversity and ecological integrity; a political model looks to social systems that realize human dignity. The authors describe a theoretical framework based on complexity science with a focus on organisational and second order cybernetics, one that presents a powerful new insight into the concept of sustainability. the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development, in forms that can be readily applied to both the planet and human society, are introduced in Section 3. • Social Development Sustainable concepts require changes in society and therefore also changes of each individual per-son. Sustainability has become a critical perspective in managing firms via a holistic approach by considering economic, environmental and social dimensions of firms. In this respect, a second transformation trap for the development towards sustainability can be revealed: the prevailing concepts of transformation towards market economies follow empirical evidence and are therefore based on a way of reasoning that refers to the past. In this case, integrity refers to achieving the developmental goals by considering both local and overall interests. Like democracy and globalization, the concept of sustainable development has become one of the most ubiquitous, contested, and indispensable concepts of our time. Few participants in this study possessed any clear, theory-supported concepts when it came to either sustainability, or ESD. This work is typified as a qualitative, bibliographical, and interpretive one, in which the databases of consulted journals are related to Science Direct, Springer Link, Wiley Online Library, and Google Scholar. Although related subjects, sustainable development and sustainability are different concepts. While all four aspects of sustainability are important, environmental sustainable is fundamental to the kaitiakitanga of our environment. KEY WORDS: Chemistry Teacher Education, Education for Sustainable Devel- opment, Teacher knowledge, PCK, Teacher attitudes INTRODUCTION Sustainable development was defined by the Brundtland Commission as a development that “meets the needs of … But quantitative growth (economic growth) cannot be sustainable once it passes its limit, which it already has. This thesis examines the concept of environmental sustainability with a focus on global efforts to achieve this. It is based upon the work of Nobel Laureate Robert Solow, and John Hartwick. theoretical sense. The purpose of this capstone is to assess efforts made to curb the impact of environmental degradation on the society by some developed and developing countries such as Switzerland, United States of America and China. The ambiguity and polysemy of the concept of sustainability is a problem often faced by researchers. After stating the three issues briefly, I will elaborate each one in turn, along with the relations among them. Sustainable development, a concept that emerged in the context of a growing awareness of an imminent ecological crisis, seems to have been one of the driving forces of world history in the period around the end of the 20th century. More about this course. Although there are difficulties in defining sustainable development in an analytically rigorous way, there is still a need to evolve a concept of sustainability that both distinguishes it from other post-war meanings of development and is useful for practical analysis and policymaking. The definition of sustainability is not nearly as simple as it might seem, likewise with the definition of sustainable development. 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